Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska

During the roaring '20s, the American Museum of Natural History conducted a series of successful expeditions to the Gobi Desert. After 1930, political changes in Mongolia rendered the Gobi's fossil treasures inaccessible to the West, but scientific research continued. First Soviet, then Polish-Mongolian teams ventured into the Gobi in search of dinosaur and mammal fossils.

In 1966, an article in Time Magazine recounted some of the booty from a few summers in the Gobi, namely 35 tons of fossils. Included in the finds were the oldest complete mammal skulls yet recorded, entire or nearly entire skeletons of 11 dinosaurs, and a 65-foot sauropod. The paleontological treasures were described at a paleontology conference in Paris by the expedition leader of the Polish-Mongolian team: Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska.

Photograph
From Hunting for Dinosaurs by Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska

Kielan-Jaworowska, shown on the left in this photo, first heard about paleontological expeditions to the Gobi in the war-torn University of Warsaw in 1946. Just 16 years later, much to her pleasant surprise, she was organizing Polish-Mongolian expeditions to the Gobi. (Kielan-Jaworowska first visited the Gobi herself in 1964.) The fossils she described in Paris in 1966 were only part of what the Polish-Mongolian team found. From 1963 to 1971, these expeditions unearthed one amazing fossil after another, including sauropods, tarbosaurs (similar to T. rex), duckbilled dinosaurs, ostrich-like dinosaurs, and mammals from the Cretaceous and early Tertiary. In 1965 alone, her team shipped over 20 tons of fossils back to Poland, including the remains of a previously unknown dinosaur with a foot-long claw. But the most spectacular find came in 1971: a Protoceratops and a juvenile Velociraptor tangled in a deadly struggle. How the fossilization process managed to catch these two in the act is still debated.

Despite the dinosaurs she and her team found, they were not the main focus of Kielan-Jaworowska's research. From 1949 to 1963, she concentrated on Paleozoic invertebrates, especially trilobites — three-lobed water bugs among the oldest fossils commonly found. In 1963, the shifted the focus of her research to Mesozoic mammals — the furry little creatures scurrying around showier dinosaurs.

Photograph
From The Reign of the Dinosaurs by Jean-Guy Michard

In addition to numerous monographs describing fossil finds, Kielan-Jaworowska wrote a wonderful book entitled Hunting for Dinosaurs describing her adventures thus far. (The English version of the book was published in 1969.) In it, she described yurt hotels, vehicle breakdowns repaired by multi-talented Mongolian drivers, campfire songs, biting flies, swarming mosquitoes, venomous snakes and spiders, sandstorms that darkened the sky as fast as eclipses, temperatures over 100°F and rewarding work. As if anticipating both the asteroid impact theory of dinosaur extinction and society's growing ecological awareness, she explained why the extinction of the dinosaurs was so puzzling, and finished the book by observing that the study of mass extinctions might well improve our own future.

Amid the tensions of the Cold War, it must have been difficult to write a book with international appeal, but Kielan-Jaworowska managed with tact — giving credit where it was due to both her Soviet and American predecessors — and humor. She included a report from a colleague who recounted that one evening the Mongolian hosts serenaded the Poles with beautiful songs, then insisted their guests reciprocate. "It turned out that singing was not exactly our forte, and the only songs we could execute passably in chorus were Christmas carols," her colleague explained. "When requested to translate the words, we got out of the difficulty by claiming they were old revolutionary songs."

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